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Manual Transfer Switches - Widespread Electrical Sales ; Any use, linkage, framing, scraping, spidering, bots, or other transfer of website content to any other website or networked computer environment for any purpose is specifically prohibited. Please allow us a day and a half for refinishing and shipping. The works by two US anthropologists — Margaret Clark and her disciple Sharon Kaufman — can be considered the beginnings of the approach of contextually situated ageing and old age.
Margaret Clark is considered to be the author of the direction which is usually called anthropologically informed gerontology, characterised by abandoning the approach to ageing as a universal process of biological and psychological decline.
The cultural models of ageing in the s were marked by debates conducted by the supporters of the disengagement theory and activity theory.
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Clark, on the other side, viewed ageing as an interactive, socially established process adapted to the specific cultural context. She worked across disciplines which resulted in mutually enriching discussions. Clark called for supporting comparative research between cultures — especially in societies where old people did not experience such cultural discontinuities as old people in the US.
According to her, ageing is less stressful in societies where the basic values are compatible with the capabilities, resources and opportunities which are available to the oldest citizens.
For the same reason, the oldest generation is less exposed to ageism. The question still to be answered is that to what extent the concept of active or successful ageing, being rooted in the European and North-American environment, is compatible with her recommendation.
Many countries of the global North face ever stronger critical voices about the standards of this concept. One of the most popular arguments of the defenders of the active ageing concept is the highlighting of its role in the fight against ageism and xenophobia which, however, represents a certain devaluation of the age category that it is meant to protect. Although the premise of the activity can have positive effects on the negative connotations linked to old age such as decline and passivity , this perspective emphasises the fact that the potential of older people has become the subject of specific interest, as the rising numbers of older people began to be viewed as a problem.
Nevertheless, there is an increasing number of manuals practical guides and expert publications which consider positive ageing as the only solution. It is eight percent more than the average of all European Union countries, where 42 percent of citizens complain about such disadvantage Discrimination in the EU in The Institute of Public Affairs brought similar results in with research showing such a perception is universally present.
And even though nowadays there are more open discussions in Slovakia than ever, ageism — that is, age discrimination — is not addressed by the public at large. The word ageism is not present or processed in Slovak dictionaries nor in Slovak dictionaries of foreign words. In Slovak academic and journalistic texts, we can find the graphic form ageizmus with the second part -izmus, the suffix is usually present in Slovak description of various streams, styles or concepts.
Given the pronunciation of the English term ageism from which the foreign word ageizmus originates, it is possible to assume the pronunciation, which is the basis for the adapted form of the expression in Slovak adapted to the Slovak spelling.
On the Internet, several entries can be found showing that Slovak language practice already uses this form pointing to a higher degree of vernacularization. However, in the Slovak language the most widespread use of widely-understood expressions is the discrimination of the elderly also referred to in English-Slovak dictionaries as the Slovak equivalent of the word ageism , old age discrimination or age discrimination.
However, these terms have a negative connotation. It seems, there is a clear prevalence of the connection of ageism with old age, not considering the possibility of discrimination of younger generations as well.
It is based on UN Principles for Older Persons, namely the principles of independence, participation in care, self-esteem and dignity, and elaborates on issues of social protection and care for the elderly.
In this document, the economic and social level of aging issues, the social security system, health care and institutional care have come to the forefront, and they are also the most medially presented topics in the Slovak environment. However, very little is said about how society should reflect old age as such, what should be the quality of life in the old age, what conditions for the elderly should be provided by society itself, and especially that it is necessary to contextualize and relieve the monolithic view of aging and old age often leading to ageism.
The National Active Aging strategy project, focusing on the detailed development of the demographic aging context with the labour market and the pension system, including the incorporation of strategic objectives in this area and the draft measures to meet these objectives, was completed in June Complementary to the Active Aging Strategy the National Aging Agenda for the years — is elaborated, in which Slovakia refers to the problem of active aging as a political priority in its entire complexity.
In the past, research has primarily focused on the position of elderly people in family in rural settings, whilst the specific age group of elderly people has been examined only exceptionally.
We consider the current issue of Slovak Ethnology dedicated to ageism to be a small contribution to raising awareness related to this topic. The task of the Action is to enhance the scientific knowledge and attention to ageism, to bring together and integrate the different disciplines of research, to develop national, multi-national and international collaborations with public policy officials, non-academic professionals, civil society NGOs and older persons.
The core idea behind the COST Action is to raise public awareness and sensitise civil society, enact and enforce laws, correct false beliefs, etc. The primary goal is using the experiences and research results to develop reference points and recommendations for fields of action aiming at reducing ageism. Contributors from over 20 countries and a variety of disciplines collaborated on topics related to the origins of the concept of ageism, its manifestation and consequences, as well as ways how to research ageism and how to respond to ageism.
The contributions in this issue present examples of multidisciplinary research dealing with the cultural dimension of old age, aging and ageism, they concentrate on how representations of this particular part of the human life course are created and used within various cultural contexts.
The four articles have backgrounds in social anthropology, sociology, psychology, and communication studies; and come from four different countries Czech Republic, Romania, Serbia and Slovakia. In these countries, the topic of old age and ageing7 is not a wide spread phenomenon in the academic production in social sciences and humanities. It was mostly North America and Western Europe, where the focus of old age and ageism research has up to now rested upon, although ageing of the population and ageism are definitely a world-wide phenomenon Nelson ; North, Fiske, The contributions of this issue present small pieces of the mosaic coming from the often exoticised Central-Eastern or South-Eastern Europe and trying to fill the blind spots on the map.
Two of the articles concentrate on the representation of ageism in different kinds of media and two of the articles concentrate on finding the proper person. Or better said: finding a person of the proper age, whether for needs concerning our professional, private or family life. The contributions are based on qualitative research grounded in interviews and media analysis.
Ivana B. Noting the tendency of students to choose specific types of companies for their obligatory internship stays more students expressed interest for a smaller number of organizations they problematise the concepts of covert and overt ageism based on presumed psychological distance from older generations of colleagues and mentors at work. The next contribution focuses on an explicit form of ageism. The contents carry and convey meaning which feeds assumptions and judgments based on the dichotomy of the in-group and out-group.
These discursive practices are intertwined with the stereotypes and discrimination and may contribute to worsening the relationship between generations in society.
In addition, the paper 7 The situation in the Czech Republic being an exception. Loredana Ivan, Ioana Schiau and Corina Buzoianu target in their study The Use of a Drawing Tool to Assess the Implicit Ageism of Students the same group as the authors of the first contribution of this issue, namely undergraduate students from a public university. Students were asked to draw pictures of elderly people, and the examination of the features of the drawings allowed the authors to talk about the implicit ageism and the way a drawing tool could be a valid tool to examine implicit ageism.
Although the use of drawing tools is indicated in the literature as a reliable technique to study attitudes and prejudice especially in classrooms, till now few studies have employed drawing tools to study ageism.
She argues that employers of local paid domestic workers use age as connoting particular qualities considered as necessary for undertaking paid care or housework. In particular, specific age groups are seen as more or less suitable for doing a particular type of paid domestic work e. The author further argues, when making decisions who to employ the age does not operate as an isolated individual category.
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Rather, it operates in intersection with other categories such as gender and can be understood only when we adopt an intersectional perspective. We are very glad that we can present the inspiring work of the British photographer, speaker and writer Alex Rotas dedicated to athletes and the process of growing older.
With her book and photographs Alex Rotas challenges ageism through filling the gap of missing representation of elderly sportsmen in the world of media. The essay opens up the topics of body and embodiment that are important in relation to discussions about sport and particularly athletics, third age Laslett, as the part of life cycle replete with fulfilment, the liberating idea of starting something new in old age and the freedom of making mistakes and feeling no pressure in doing so and last but not least, the model of active or successful ageing as well as the critique of this concept.
Two of the other the book reviews in this issue also deal mostly with the topics of old age and intergenerational relations. Based on the autobiographical texts from both cities she concentrates, but not exclusively, on the search for the boundaries of old age as seen from the perspectives of the elderly people themselves. The Forms of Paid Work in Households.
Using his acceptance speech at the award ceremony, Dr. Tuberculosis Tuberculosis TB is one of the most deadly infectious diseases in the world. Each year, TB kills In , MSF admitted 29, new patients for MSF has been fighting TB for over Malaria endemic areas, MSF distributes nets to pregnant women and children under the age of five, who are mostHowever, the prevalence of this type of research in the field of gerontology overshadowed the development of the theoretical aspects.
The cultural models of ageing in the s were marked by debates conducted by the supporters of the disengagement theory and activity theory.
Chicago: University des Alterns und gesellschaftliche Entwicklung. Under ageism we understand a highly prevalent complex and often negative social construction of old age. In a long term perspective, she is dealing with the ethnological research of kinship and family, old age, intergenerational relations, auto biographical research and historical anthropology.
Recent works point to the complexity of aging as a process and to the diverse and, moreover, ever-changing experience of older people in relation to different social spaces and frameworks such as class, ethnic origin, social organization, gender and 1 An overview can be found in Twigg, Martin,
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